Modbus with C#: libraries, code, utilities and examples

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In this post you will find how to use nModbus with C# and how to create a simulation enviroment to test your program with Modbus.
Other useful resources that you can find in this post are:

  • using a Modbus simulator
  • Creating virtual Com ports
  • Using sniffer tools to debug the transmission
  • A Modbus TCP Client in C# with another library

Getting NModbus

The C# library I use the most when I need Modbus communication between pc and plcs or other components is nModbus.
nModbus manages both Modbus TCP and RTU protocols, it’s well tested and sources are available. The site of nModbus is here you can get the latest sources.

Once you extract the sources you can open the solution file, located in the src folder.

Sample code

NModbus contains many samples included in the source code. Once you open it, you can go to MySample project that contains many examples on how to read and write using different devices:

The two examples that I use the most are Modbus TCP and RTU, and an example of the code to use the library is this:

Modbus TCP

 *  Reading
TcpClient client = new TcpClient("", 502);
ModbusIpMaster master = ModbusIpMaster.CreateIp(client);

// read five input values
ushort startAddress = 100;
ushort numInputs = 5;
bool[] inputs = master.ReadInputs(startAddress, numInputs);

for (int i = 0; i < numInputs; i++)
	Console.WriteLine("Input {0}={1}", startAddress + i, inputs[i] ? 1 : 0);

 *  Writing
ushort startAddress = 1;
// write three coils
master.WriteMultipleCoils(startAddress, new bool[] { true, false, true });

Modbus RTU

SerialPort port = new SerialPort("COM1");

// configure serial port
port.BaudRate = 9600;
port.DataBits = 8;
port.Parity = Parity.None;
port.StopBits = StopBits.One;

// create modbus master
IModbusSerialMaster master = ModbusSerialMaster.CreateRtu(port);

byte slaveId = 1;
ushort startAddress = 1;
ushort numRegisters = 5;

// read five registers
ushort[] registers = master.ReadHoldingRegisters(slaveId, startAddress, numRegisters);

for (int i = 0; i < numRegisters; i++)
	Console.WriteLine("Register {0}={1}", startAddress + i, registers[i]);

byte slaveId = 1;
ushort startAddress = 1;

// write three coils
master.WriteMultipleCoils(slaveId, startAddress, new bool[] { true, false, true });

Depending on the registers that you are going to read and write you have different methods, that will call different functions of the protocol, and that will return the results in 2 formats: ushort or bool (if you are reading multiple registers you will get array of ushorts and bools).


NModbus is supported by thousands of users, and you can find help on the NModbus google Group.

Testing your program with a simulation:

The most common Modbus simulator is located at

This simulator provides both Modbus TCP and RTU protocols, and shows the content of the registers in the main windows so you can analyze the behaviour of your program directly in the tables of the simulator.

Creating Virtual COM Ports to test Modbus RTU:

While it’s easy to use TCP to analyze the Modbus TCP on the host (just create a socket with a ip), testing Modbus RTU or ASCII may require some hardware, like a null-modem cable and 2 COM Ports.
To avoid this you can download a null modem emulator called Com0Com (open source, located at to create a pair of virtual com ports which you can use to connect your simulator and software.

Sniffer tools available for free:

If you need to analyze the traffic between two devices to see what’s going on with your communication, there are two useful tools:
Wireshark is used to sniff ethernet packets and to decode the protocol. This tool can decode Modbus TCP protocol quite well and it’s also useful to debug the transmission.
Free Serial Port Monitor is a serial port sniffer that can analyze the transmission between 2 COM Ports.

Other Modbus TCP libraries:

a good Modbus TCP library is available at

This library provides a client with some interesting features and it’s also useful for debugging the devices.

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84 Responses to Modbus with C#: libraries, code, utilities and examples

  1. Rick September 6, 2012 at 18:31 #


  2. Sam Pearson (@xofz) October 26, 2012 at 23:20 #

    Great article, thanks!

  3. Derek December 12, 2012 at 04:29 #

    Great article, are you familiar enough with NModbus (or the modbus protocol in general) to know if it has the ability to be event-driven. That is, to not have to user a timer or manually poll for data from a client PLC?

    I know an OPC Server is the ideal solution, but for only a couple PLCs, it’s too expensive.

    Finally, I know that the NModbus site was hacked and the documentation was lost. However, the author said the documentation could be recovered if rebuilt from the Nant task in the source code. ( Perhaps you could re-host the documentation, or that could be another article! I know a LOT of developers are looking for it.

    Cheers and keep up the good work

  4. mesta December 12, 2012 at 20:01 #

    Hi Derek, there are no problem in hosting the documentation of nmodbus, but it just consists in 8 examples that can be found inside the source code (“MySample” folder).
    About the event-driven communication, it’s just a layer above the syncronous communication.
    To develop an asyncronous communication you need to have a thread dedicated to polling the modbus device. This thread listen to external calls from the application and executes reads and writes to the plc. When data are ready it fires a “DataReady_Event(EventArg data)” to all subscribers.
    The problem of this architecture is that it requires a lot of code that add no value to the application itself, because once you can write a multithreaded application, you can just extract your data from the communication thread, saving yourself from the pain of event-handling, subscription and memory leaks. There is an example of hmi in my last article that shows a basic structure of multithreaded app.

  5. Marco M. January 22, 2013 at 16:15 #

    Great article and blog! Thank you for sharing all this information, it’s very appreciated!


  6. Marian February 5, 2013 at 18:27 #

    Hi, I’ve problem using nmodbus library with plcsimulator. When i’m trying to read data in intervals ~10sec, all slots in simulator becoming full in 10 secconds.

    I don’t know if it’s problem with code or simulator ( refreshing is not fast enought) ?

    Maybe someone had this problem ?

  7. mesta February 8, 2013 at 21:29 #

    Never had problems with plc simulator. Probably you need to check the plc simulator configuration, or to check with a sniffer what packets you are sending and receiving.
    There are some videos on youtube on how to use wireshark, if you are using modbus tcp.

  8. Cavaleiro March 22, 2013 at 12:18 #


    Your library is great and many thanks for share it.
    I have one question about using your library.
    When I configure the serial port with a wrong Baudrate the code block because the stream don’t receive the expetc number of bytes.
    You don’t have the Timeout funcionalitie implemented or I’m missing something?

    Best regards, and thanks again

    • Cavaleiro March 22, 2013 at 12:45 #

      Hello again.
      The solution is simple and is implemented.
      My mistake.

      To use Timeout communication, just have to configure the Serial port ReadTimeout and WriteTimeout, like this:

      port.ReadTimeout = 1000; //1 second
      port.WriteTimeout = 1000; //1 second

      Best regards

      • mesta March 22, 2013 at 13:24 #

        Thanks for sharing it.

  9. Erik March 25, 2013 at 10:13 #


    I’d like to rephrase Dereks question above regarding event-driven. I stumbled upon (originally hosted at: which is dedicated for Siemens PLC and is now continued at:

    I belive this library uses modbus (but not sure). However it also lacks the event driven communication. I understand that you can create a thread that polls the PLC and generates the event when it detects that data is changed. However the optimal solution would be that the PLC (or modbus device) sends the data itself upon change. Does such mechanism exist for the modbus protocol?

    • Cavaleiro March 25, 2013 at 11:45 #


      If your PLC (or another modbus device ) is a master, so your PC application will be a slave. In this case the PLC(master) can share is information when ready to do it, and the PC(slave) only have to receive it.

      The NModbus supports this “kind of feature”, it can be configured as Slave or Master (ASCII, TRU and TCP/IP).

      I think you must read something about the Modbus Protocol first. The Modbus protocol is very simple to understand, so you don’t need so much time to do it.
      After that you will use the NModbus library mutch better.
      (sorry for my bad english :) )

      Best regards

      • Erik March 26, 2013 at 08:16 #


        Thanks for your answer. I Read about the protocol for about 5 minutes now :)

        So from what I understand you have a master and a slave configuration. The master sends out requests which the slave node(s) reply to. Typically a polling scenario. In order to get data upon events I have to set up the PLC as a master which writes to the PC as a slave. This would require some kind of extra logic (PLC program) set up in the PLC which I want to supervise. With TCP-modbus it is possible to setup the PC and PLC as both master and slave (on different connections). Not the general simple solution I was looking for so I think if I want an event driven communication it’s better to go with some OPC-solution which has already solved what I’m looking for.

        Do you know how this is solved under the hood of the OPC-server? Is the OPC server polling the device?

        • mesta March 27, 2013 at 13:37 #

          Hi Eric, probably you are confusing the two libraries, but S7.Net use S7 protocol, nModbus use Modbus protocol (that depending on the physical cable can be Modbus TCP (ethernet) or Modbus RTU (RS 422 – RS 485).
          S7.Net use Profinet (or Industrial Ethernet, don’t remember that good) and it’s derived from LibNoDave that can communicate both with Profinet and MPI.
          To use nModbus you need to add the Modbus libraries to the plc program.
          About Master and Slave, think like internet: a website is the Master and your pc that browse the site is the Slave.
          The master choose who and when a slave can talk, but it’s up to the slave to choose what he needs from the master, so you need no extra-coding on the plc part if you just need to read/write values on a DB.
          Both MPI, Profibus and Profinet are multi-master protocols, this means that when a master did what he needs, he pass the token to the other master, and so on.
          Modbus RTU is not multi-master, Modbus TCP is multi-master.
          About S7.Net, you can check a working hardware configuration sample in this thread:

          this has been tested.
          About the event-driven architecture:
          or you implement your own in your polling thread, or you use it as is with an OPC Server.

      • Erik March 27, 2013 at 16:07 #

        Hello again,

        I’m greatful that you are answering my newbie questions. The background for the question is that I found the library. Tried it and worked well. Since there are no real support for this library I wanted to find more information regarding how it worked under the hood (which protocol was used and so on). I found this discussion:

        Which to me indicated that the library used modbus TCP for communication. I kind of doubt that it is derived from LibNoDave after reading this discussion:

        And by looking at the source it seems like it’s really implemented in C# all the way down to the byte communication. But it may very well use another protocol than modbus and I’m quite eager to find out which protocol. We did not set up anything (if I remeber correctly) on the PLC side to be able to access it using

        • mesta March 27, 2013 at 20:42 #

          Hi Eric, the protocol is a reverse engineering of the s7 protocol used by Step7.
          A similar code can be found inside libnodave and also inside prodave, the official Siemens library.
          I was wrong about, because the project that is derived from libnodave is Siemens plc toolbox.

          This is more dvanced than

  10. David April 14, 2013 at 16:56 #

    I think this may be the best article to start with modbus, really nice work.

  11. Vanderley Maia April 26, 2013 at 21:04 #

    Hi Mesta, thank you so much for your help!

    unfortunately I’m having problems with my device and not getting the values that I would like to read.
    I have always a timeout problem. :/

    This is my code:

    private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
    // create modbus master
    IModbusSerialMaster master = ModbusSerialMaster.CreateRtu(PortaEmulada1);
    ushort[] registers = master.ReadHoldingRegisters((byte)1, 80, 2);

    The device that I’m trying use is this:

    Do you have any idea that what is happning?

    Thank you for your great work!
    Best regards!

    • Anonymous April 29, 2013 at 12:36 #

      Problem solved guys.

      Basically the problem was that my device CIBER needs that you set the Date Terminal Ready parameters as TRUE. After that, the protocol works just perfectly 😀

      Thank you for your wonderfull work Mesta.
      Best regards.

    • Vanderley Maia April 29, 2013 at 12:37 #

      Problem solved guys.

      Basically the problem was that my device CIBER needs that you set the Date Terminal Ready parameters as TRUE. After that, the protocol works just perfectly

      Thank you for your wonderfull work Mesta.
      Best regards.

      • mesta April 30, 2013 at 14:53 #

        Thanks for sharing it!

  12. Deepak May 17, 2013 at 06:25 #

    Hello Mesta,

    I have very little knowledge of this field and your articles have given me great information.

    For one project, I want to control a servo motor/drive (Delta ASDA B2) though c# program. I want the motor to be controlled directly through the software code using Modbus/RS 232. The drive supports both protocols. I do not want to use a PLC. Is it possible? Please advise.

    Best Regards and thanks a lot for such a nice work.

    • mesta May 17, 2013 at 12:43 #

      Yes you can use C# and NModbus to control your drive, if the serial port is a RS232. If it is a RS422 or 485 you need extra-hardware.
      To communicate with Modbus through the serial port you need the Modbus RTU protocol, already included inside NModbus.
      You just have to know what register you need to read/write, and write the values that you need.
      Probably you need to do this independently if you use a PLC or a PC.
      However It is reccomended to use real-time OS to control motors, and Windows is not such OS.

  13. bingshanxuelian May 29, 2013 at 11:17 #

    Hi Mesta,

    Thanks so much for your information. I am new to Modbus, and have been read myself like one week about it.
    I am working one one project which needs to realise the Modbus RTU master function in C#, in order to read the data value from the slaves. I found that your library is the best, but problem is that: Can you explain to me the structure of your library? In fact I do not know which parts are the library excatly. It has so 6 projects when I open it in Visual C# 2010… some other I can not even open…
    Thanks a lot. Hope you understand what I mean!


    • mesta May 29, 2013 at 12:21 #

      Open MySample project, uncomment the sample that you want to execute and run it. It should work and get you started.

  14. bingshanxuelian May 30, 2013 at 10:05 #

    Sorry mesta,

    I still did not figure out how to add your library to my C# project. Is that I add all the projects to my solution, then I can use the library? When I done like this, it still does not work. Is that MySample is a sample folder only to show how to programming with Modbus? MySample is not a library? Sorry for my questions, I really could not make it work!


    • mesta May 30, 2013 at 11:30 #

      If your problem is to add an external library to your C# project you should:
      1- Create new project
      2- In solution explorer right click on solution and “Add” -> “Existing project”
      3- After adding the modbus library go under your project, right click on “References”, “Add Reference”.
      4- In the left tab, under solution, you will find NModbus project, so add it.
      5- You can now use the library.

      Here the msdn link:

      • bingshanxuelian May 30, 2013 at 13:21 #

        Thanks so much mesta,

        It turned out that my “target frameWork” is not fit for this library. I have it .Net 4 client, and it should be .Net 4….
        Now I can use it :)


  15. bingshanxuelian June 3, 2013 at 09:50 #

    Hi mesta,

    Sorry for bothering you again. I would like to ask that, I want to make one software application which will read and display the Modbus RTU communication register values. How can I do it? should I create a IModbusSerialMaster first, then send message to slave? I want to display all the regoister values when I connect my software and PLC. Which is the function to read from RTU slave? Thanks a lot. Please even give me a general hint is also very appreciated. As I am new to this field, but need to get the work done still.Thanks!


    • mesta June 3, 2013 at 12:29 #

      You should take the example of RTU communication and try to connect to the plc or the Modbus RTU simulator.
      Once you can read or write a register you can make a thread that keeps reading the registers from the plc.
      Something like this:

      • bingshanxuelian June 4, 2013 at 11:39 #

        Hi mesta,

        thanks for answering . but they are too much for me I do not understand what do you mean. Can you explain little bit in detail? In fact what I want is: user enter slave ID, comport number, and baudrate then I have one button which will connect to the corresponding port automatically. Then the value of the registers should be displayed in datagrdiview…I get got stuck in this connect button….You gave is a very good library, but I do not know where should I start to do. Hope you understand, Also you know any Modbus RTU slave simulator?

        Thanks !

        • mesta June 7, 2013 at 12:49 #

          If you have problems with the connection of your device, you should ask help to the device’s manifacturer. Using NModbus implies that you know what is modbus and that you can debug the connection, and also you should have all the hardware needed for the communication.
          As you can imagine, i don’t know/can’t test your hardware, so this part is up to you.

  16. sachin singh June 22, 2013 at 10:44 #

    hello everybody , i have just download the NModBus library to read some Holding Registers of a device , in my c# 2010 express solution explorer added the reference to the modbus.dll from binary/net of the extracted folder , added all namespaces from modbus ie using , using and so on . then also added ftdAdapter.dll and wrote a small code to read holding registers using modbus RTU as explained by mesta at this page . But my project is not able to build .
    it says namespace name ‘Modbus’ could not be found (are you missing a using directive or an assembly reference? u guys are way ahead this issue , please drop me a line of advice .

    • mesta June 22, 2013 at 22:22 #

      You need the full .Net framework 4.0, not just the client profile.

  17. sachin singh June 23, 2013 at 10:17 #

    Hi Mesta I managed to get it right , actually I did not know before that u can add many projects under one solution , I have just had added DLLs before . when project of different .Net framework are added in one project , each individual project needs to be pointed to the frame work it was created on through the property of that project and then one project is required to be set as the start up project . This is the trick I was missing .
    Thanks for ur help !!

  18. sachin singh June 23, 2013 at 12:37 #

    Got out of obstacle but stuck at the next . well , I have a Modbus tester from namely “Modbus tester ” , this is something I have used for years . I have made some usual settings inside this software (protocol = Modbus RTU , pairity = even as per my device and so on) . starting address address = 3901 , no of registers = 2 , type of reg = holding and so on . This Modbus tester software reads my device correctly and also sets the display correctly in binary / hex / float etc . This is perfect . but when I run the same settings using same converter same device with Modbus RTU holding register read (start address = ushort 3901 and no of reg = ushort 2 , device address = 1) , my c# code throws an exception saying “Function code 131 , exception code 2 , the data address received in query is not an allowable address ” .
    For the time being this is beyond me , how come NModbus driver is interpreting the same working address as wrong ? anybody has any clue ? Please drop me a line .

    • sachin singh June 28, 2013 at 08:12 #

      hello everybody . i managed to fix my issue , any new starter having hickups in the begining like i had drop me an email i`d b glad to help . thanks to u all …

  19. bingshanxuelian July 1, 2013 at 12:00 #

    Hi Mesta,
    I have been in one problem for weeks, and can not get it work.
    My program works well with ReadHoldingRegister and ReadInputs, but not with the rest: ReadCoil and ReadInputsRegister. it always gives some error says: the combination of reference number and transfer length is invalid. Even I tried with only 1 register. It still gave the same error. You have any idea? Thanks so much. this is the last part of my app, I really want to figure it out…thanks

    • mesta July 1, 2013 at 12:20 #

      The only way to solve those errors is to check what packets you receive by using a Sniffer.
      Depending on the Modbus, you can sniff the packets with Wireshark if is Modbus TCP, or with SerialPortMonitor if is Modbus RTU (check the download links in the article).
      Then you can check the unit’s reply and understand what’s happening.
      The modbus protocol is quite simple and you will be able to decode it in not much time.

      • Sachin Singh July 1, 2013 at 16:12 #

        Mesta u r very correct . memory I was reading were meant to be read as a block but I was trying to read only 4 locations from top out of 20 , which was giving me a CRC error . Next , a location named 3901 in the manual = address 3900 in the c# code . I was able to fix the problem by looking at the response in the serial port monitor software . Then I hooked my Oscilloscope in Rtx of com port , that too was helpful . now NModBus C# API is ROCKING in my shop floor , thanks a lot for ur expert advice .

      • bingshanxuelian July 2, 2013 at 11:41 #

        Hi Mesta,

        thanks for replying. It turned out my PLC is configured with those addreses.
        I want to ask another thing, how can I get the port disconnected? I have 2 buttons, one for connect one for disconnect..In connect click function, I create port and let it connect, but I can not get it disconnected…can you tell me how this could be done? Thanks so much!!

        • sachin singh July 4, 2013 at 11:42 #

          port.close(); closes the port and disposes the memory resources.There is no PING command for COM port , best way to check connection is that u write some known value to some location and when ever u need to test connectivity , u read the same location and then check for the content u received .

        • bingshanxuelian July 17, 2013 at 08:11 #

          Thanks sachin singh,
          My problem still did not get solved yet.
          In my disconnect button click, I did it like this:

          ConnectBu.Enabled = true;

          But the result is the whole application exits. What I want is I can connect and disconnect manually, not exits. Is there anything related to the Modbus 485 cable I amusing now? Please help, so long time suffering from this problem. Thanks so much!

  20. mesta July 17, 2013 at 09:06 #

    Dispose(); is related to the port or to the application ? because it should be "port.Dispose()";
    But also i think that Dispose it’s not needed, port.Close() it’s enough.

    • bingshanxuelian July 17, 2013 at 20:43 #

      Thanks mesta,

      I do not know why I use port.close(), it does not work. I do not know what is wrong. When I press disconnect button, then later press connect again it says: can not access port and it points to with this error.

      Also I want to display the connection status in the StatusStrip …it does not work as well…
      Thanks for helping.


      • mesta July 18, 2013 at 10:26 #

        You probably need to learn how to use the SerialPort class.
        Check some examples like this:

        • bingshanxuelian July 23, 2013 at 11:31 #

          Hi, mesta.

          Thanks so much for replying, that is similar with what I want.
          my problem is that I can not connect to the slave all the time, only few seconds it will disconnect automatically. I have been trying for few monthes. It does not work still, so tired with this.
          I think my program is right, but it does not work. is it possible you can check my code little bit? I really need some help with this. Thanks a lot!

  21. Pablo January 24, 2014 at 14:43 #

    How i can read and write only one bit of a register with this library?

    I have the register Modbus RTU and the description of bits….

    Use a conversor Rs-232 (added USB) to Rs-485

  22. Esteban Brenes April 19, 2014 at 20:02 #

    Hi, Im trying to use a PLC TWDLCDE40DRF, I just want to write to the %I0.0 input, Im using the following code

    using (TcpClient client = new TcpClient(“”, 502))
    ModbusIpMaster master = ModbusIpMaster.CreateIp(client);
    ushort registerAddress = 0;
    master.WriteSingleRegister(registerAddress, 1);

    but im getting this error:

    Modbus.SlaveException was unhandled
    Message=Exception of type ‘Modbus.SlaveException’ was thrown.
    Function Code: 134
    Exception Code: 2 – The data address received in the query is not an allowable address for the server (or slave). More specifically, the combination of reference number and transfer length is invalid. For a controller with 100 registers, the PDU addresses the first register as 0, and the last one as 99. If a request is submitted with a starting register address of 96 and a quantity of registers of 4, then this request will successfully operate (address-wise at least) on registers 96, 97, 98, 99. If a request is submitted with a starting register address of 96 and a quantity of registers of 5, then this request will fail with Exception Code 0x02 “Illegal Data Address” since it attempts to operate on registers 96, 97, 98, 99 and 100, and there is no register with address 100.

    I suppose the address is not 0, but I dont have idea what is the correct address.


    • mesta April 20, 2014 at 10:34 #

      To transfer 1 bit you should use WriteMultipleCoils, not WriteRegister. WriteRegister is only for integers.
      You can also use the Modbus library in c# in the end of the article to make tests with your plc.

  23. Sachin Singh June 7, 2014 at 13:45 #

    Hi Mesta i have had started long time ago from here now i have written my own modbus implementation for S7 300 / 400 / 1200 and also have written a small library using tcp ip fetch and write service to talk to above mentioned PLCs and they all work as expected . There is one thing i am still strugling with and that is drawing line circles and rectangles on the winform . While developing a SCADA one has to show pipelines and stuff , is there any windows OS paint like program using which i could draw those static graphics on winform ?

    • mesta June 17, 2014 at 19:50 #

      In windows forms you can just use bitmaps and make them visible/invisible depending on the state of some variables.
      That’s what Scada designers do by the way.

  24. Sachin Singh June 7, 2014 at 13:52 #

    Hi Esteban Brenes I recommend you use wireshark to troubleshoot anything on your tcp port . Very important to judge the location of the problem , in your software / connecting media ( cable switch ) or in the PLC device itself.
    Hey bingshanxuelian . You problem not solved yet ? Give me you email address i shall snd you one c# class which works fine for me .

  25. Eloy June 13, 2014 at 13:31 #

    Hello everybody,

    I am using this great library in TCP mode with a PC. The PC could behave either as a master or as a slave. It works fine in both modes, marter and slave. When the PC behaves as a slave gets is own slave address in the constructor:

    ModbusSlave slave = ModbusTcpSlave.CreateTcp(slaveId, slaveTcpListener);

    With this method, the simulated slave address of the PC server is ‘slaveId’.

    However, my PC answers to all masters requests independent the value of UnitID present in the TCP frame sent by the master. I have been looking to some management of the requests addressed to a particular slave like this one for the ModbusSerialSlave:

    // only service requests addressed to this particular slave
    if (request.SlaveAddress != UnitId)
    _logger.DebugFormat(“NModbus Slave {0} ignoring request…”, UnitId, request.SlaveAddress);

    But I haven’t find any place where the management of InitID is done in the ModbusTcpSlave class.
    Could any one help me where to find how to block server responses indepent of its UnitID?

    Any help is wellcome!


    • mesta June 17, 2014 at 19:45 #

      I know that probably it’s not the answer that you expect, but you should ask this question in the nMdobus google group:!forum/NModbus-discuss
      To give you an answer i would really need to dig inside the sources and check wether the message get decomposed and what they do with every piece of the frame.

      • Sachin Singh June 23, 2014 at 18:13 #

        Thank You.So far i have been drawing some line horizontal and vertical using label and putting many minus sign – or vertical pipes | and also for arrows which is ok but people these days expect heavy graphics even on PCs controlling machines . This is crazy …

  26. Sachin Singh July 9, 2014 at 17:08 #

    Dear Eloy, writing your own modbud tcp query is not complected at all . you may very easily study the modbus tcp protocol and send a message frame using c# raw tcp connection , and the device would respond to it. Me too started out with this library but started to write my own message frames and it works quite well. Also learn little bit about Wireshark which may be of great help finding out problem in your code initially .

  27. David July 28, 2014 at 10:25 #

    Hi Mesta, sorry for digging up this old post, but i would really appreciate your help.

    I have Visual Studios 2013 and i downloaded the NModbus Library from the Google-Group.

    I opened MySample.csproj but i can’t build or exectue “Driver.cs” because of 2 Errors.

    1)Modbus.IO.StreamResource is defined in a not referenced Assembly…
    2) Metadata “FtdAdapter.dee was not found in /source/src/FtdAdapter/bin/Debug

    What did i do wrong, and how can i fix it?
    Please help
    thank you

    • mesta July 28, 2014 at 11:01 #

      I downloaded it right now and compiled with Visual Studio 2013 without any problem. Did you unzip everything in the folder that you downloaded or only “src” folder? Maybe that’s the problem. Also remove the incompatible projects in the solution.

  28. Anonymous July 28, 2014 at 11:23 #

    hi Mesta, thank you for your quick reply!
    I unziped everything.
    I got a couple folders like
    and a couple files like

    >in source i got folders and files again.
    >i open src > MySample > MySample.csproj but i can’t build Driver.cs nor run any .cs files…
    I deleted the incompatible projects already, but it didn’t fix the problem :(
    When i want to start “driver.cs” i get the message:”A Project with the Returntyp “Classlibery” can’t be run…” (rough translation).

  29. David July 28, 2014 at 11:29 #

    Update, i could build the “MySample” now (i just copied the files into the “Project” folder again and deleted the old files…
    But i still can’t run driver.cs
    I still get the message about the class libery…
    Thank you very much for your help

  30. Anonymous July 28, 2014 at 11:38 #

    I got it now, there was a fault setting, that i didn’t run the selected cs but always a default cs…
    thank you though!

  31. santosh751 August 10, 2014 at 14:28 #

    i want to help . i am able to read 16bit data from PLC like 4digit number but when it comes to 32bit, big number like 9digit , i am not able to read from register. can you help in this regard. i am communicating PLC through .Net program. Do you have any example which can read a 32bit value from PLC.

    • mesta August 12, 2014 at 10:06 #

      It depends if the PLC supports 32bit transfer with Modbus. For sure you need to read 2 consecutive registers, then you need to convert the 2 numbers to Hexadecimal, then depending if it’s floating point, integer or what else, you need to convert from hex to your unit.
      Just google how to do the conversion from hex to float / int and you’ll get what you are looking for.

  32. Peter_DA_TUAN November 3, 2014 at 09:01 #

    Hi Mesta
    I designing HMI software. My PC has 4 comport. I need access data from 4 PLC. Could you hepl me How to creat multi thread for multi comport?

  33. JRK007 November 4, 2014 at 07:09 #

    I just downloaded Nmodbus source and binaries. When I am running example code ‘Driver.cs’ given in Nmodbus source , i am getting IOException Checksum Failed to match .
    I am running code as-is without any alteration.
    How do I debug and where do I find Nmodbus Functions and Exceptions documentation?

  34. Imanuel November 24, 2014 at 13:51 #

    anybody has a working solution for visual c# 2010 Express? I can not convert the files.
    I would actualy like to have the modbustcp_master example but can’t find it and can’t convert

    • mesta November 24, 2014 at 14:19 #

      There is a free version of Visual Studio 2013 called Community version, that is equivalent to VS professional. You can check it out here:

      • Imanuel November 25, 2014 at 10:25 #

        Thanks for the quick response. However it would no run on xp. On top of that, the my samples folder doesn’t seem to have the modbustcp_client.sln
        I tried to download it form their page but some files are missing for the sample.
        If someone have the modbustcp_client.sln sample working I would be very greatfull.

  35. Joe February 3, 2015 at 06:14 #

    I have been working with this library for almost a year and have a problem that I can’t solve. In searching through the NModbus discussion groups, it looks like other people have this problem as well and it hasn’t been resolved, (see!searchin/NModbus-discuss/close$20client$20port/nmodbus-discuss/QMSyOfRcIrU/rxpCdroOxNMJ and!searchin/NModbus-discuss/close$20client$20port/nmodbus-discuss/OhvR3hLOD8w/ncBdaQ1PUKAJ).. The problem is related to shutting down the TCP ports when the ModbusTcpSlave is disposed. If I dispose of the slave, the ports are still active. If I iterate through the Masters collection and manually close the clients, then an exception is thrown (either IO Exception or Object Disposed Exception) that I haven’t been able to catch, so the software simply crashes. This seems like a bug within the class library since the software is still trying to communicate on the port after the clients have been closed and the ModbusTcpSlave has been disposed. The only way I’ve found to close these ports is to kill the software altogether and start over. Is there a recommended way to close the client ports?

    This is a real problem that may require my client to walk away from the software altogether. Any help would be appreciated.

    • mesta February 3, 2015 at 10:36 #

      This seems more a socket related problem, rather than a nmodbus library problem.
      You should check if the ports are open and in what state, if they are in listening state or in wait state.
      Searching around I found this thread:
      He suggests to close the stream before closing the socket.
      Also you can enable network tracing in visual studio:

      • Joe February 4, 2015 at 04:23 #

        Thanks for your quick reply; however, properly closing the ports is not the problem. The problem is that as soon as they are closed, an ObjectDisposedException is thrown from NModbus.

        In reviewing the NModbus source code, this is what I think the problem is: in class ModbusTcpSlave, in the method AcceptCompleted, a new master is created when a client connects and a corresponding event handler is added for masterConnection.ModbusMasterTcpConnectionClosed. The method linked to this event handler is supposed to remove the master and close the socket, but it is not being called. So, if I call the Dispose() method on ModbusTcpSlave, the slave is shutdown, but the master ports remain open. I verified this using NETSTAT from a command line. If I manually close the masters, they are closed, but the event handler created when the connection was first made is still active and polling, so the software immediately throws the exception and kills my software.

        This is a NModbus problem because only NModbus can unsuscribe from the event handler. I have no way to control this event handler from my code. I have tried to catch this exception, but haven’t been successful.

        This is a problem in my software because if the ModbusTcpSlave needs to be shut down and restarted (e.g., in the case of a communication failure), then when it is restarted and the master reconnects, then the original ports remain open. Eventually, those open (but now dead) ports are causing the software to crash.

        I think a simple solution would be to unsubscribe from the masterConnection.ModbusMasterTcpConnectionClosed event in the ModbusTcpSlave.Dispose() method. However, I would really like your opinion on this matter, especially if there is a way to properly dispose of the slave and master connections.


  36. Damir February 24, 2015 at 23:56 #

    Hello Mesta,

    Great blog I have just one question. In nmodbus can we somehow read structure of query message which send master to slave?

    • mesta February 25, 2015 at 10:17 #

      Hi, the best way is to use a sniffing tool, like Wireshark or similar.
      If it’s not possible, you can enable log4net, here there is a tutorial:!topic/nmodbus-discuss/Ut4H7sx6ATA
      If log4net is not enough, you have to inspect the sources by setting breakpoints and go step by step.

      • Damir February 25, 2015 at 22:33 #

        Hi, it is no problem to detect message, but my intention is to present following in my application, message send from Master and than reply from Slave

  37. Abhi More July 7, 2015 at 10:14 #

    Hi Mesta,

    I have connected four different slave ids. I am communicate to them using loop and timer. I am able to read the data from controller but while writing the data using write function, facing CRC error.
    Can you please help me in this?
    I have referred following article..

    Write issue is inconsistent….

    • mesta July 8, 2015 at 08:45 #

      Usually for Modbus communication I use NModbus. It’s possible to debug the error and check what’s wrong with your library, but if I would be in your place, I would switch to NModbus because of better documentation, bigger user base and the certainty that it just works. If you go on with your library, you’re on your own with bug fixing.

      • Abhi July 9, 2015 at 19:34 #

        Hi Mesta,
        I am trying to read data from following config

        byte slaveId = 3;
        ushort startAddress = 0;
        ushort numRegisters = 36;

        With master.ReadHoldingRegisters i am getting time out exception.

        i have set the read and write timeout to 1000 (1 second)

        can you please help..?

        • mesta July 10, 2015 at 08:14 #

          You need to use a serial port sniffer to debug modbus problems. There is a link in the article, download it then sniff the packets that you are sending with the new software, you also sniff the packets that you sent with the old software that worked, check the frames and understand what’s different, then adjust the new software.

        • Abhi More July 16, 2015 at 10:05 #

          Hi mesta,
          Its working…
          Now no issue while reading and writing register in loop ..
          Thank you !!!

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